CATHOLIC
SPIRITUAL DIRECTION

"Holy Communion is the shortest and safest way to Heaven."   --Saint Pope Pius X

ON THIS PAGE:

SAINT OF THE DAY
MASS READINGS
Pope Francis Prayer Intentions
Spiritual Direction for Today
Our Lady of Good Remedy Prayer

Prayers for the Day
Prayer to Our Lady Untier of Knots
Litany of Saint Joseph
America's Sin of Abortion
Pray for Donald Trump
Blessings of the Rosary
Blessings of Daily Mass
Marian Prayers
Chaplet of Saint Michael
Purpose of this Web Site
Overcoming difficulties at Work/Home
Holy Water
Intercession of Two Great Popes
Prayer to the Precious Blood

PRAYER REQUESTS

OUR LADY OF CONSOLATION

PRAYER TO OUR LADY OF CONSOLATION
O Mary Immaculate, our Mother and Consolation, I take refuge in thy most loving heart with all the confidence of which I am capable; thou shalt be the dearest object of my love and veneration. To thee, who art the dispenser of the treasures of Heaven, I shall always have recourse in my sorrows to have peace, in my doubts to have light, in my dangers to be defended, in all my needs to obtain thy assistance. Be therefore my refuge, my strength, my consolation, O Mary the Consoler! At the hour of my death, graciously receive the last sighs of my heart and obtain for me a place in thy heavenly home, where all hearts shall praise with one accord the adorable Heart of Jesus for ever more as well as thy most lovable heart, O Mary. Our tender Mother, Comforter of the afflicted, pray for us who have recourse to thee.

Grant also peace and holiness to the Church, through Jesus Christ, thy Son, our Lord.
Amen.
 

PRAY FOR US TODAY!

 

MASS READINGS FOR TODAY 

November 18th

Saturday of the Thirty-second week in Ordinary Time

 

Book of Wisdom 18:14-16.19:6-9.
When peaceful stillness compassed everything and the night in its swift course was half spent,
Your all-powerful word from heaven's royal throne bounded, a fierce warrior, into the doomed land,
bearing the sharp sword of your inexorable decree. And as he alighted, he filled every place with death; he still reached to heaven, while he stood upon the earth.
For all creation, in its several kinds, was being made over anew, serving its natural laws, that your children might be preserved unharmed.
The cloud overshadowed their camp; and out of what had before been water, dry land was seen emerging: Out of the Red Sea an unimpeded road, and a grassy plain out of the mighty flood.
Over this crossed the whole nation sheltered by your hand, after they beheld stupendous wonders.
For they ranged about like horses, and bounded about like lambs, praising you, O LORD! their deliverer.

Psalms 105(104):2-3.36-37.42-43.
Sing to him, sing his praise,
proclaim all his wondrous deeds.
Glory in his holy name;
rejoice, O hearts that seek the LORD!

He struck down every firstborn in the land,
the first fruits of all their manhood.
And he led them forth laden with silver and gold,
with not a weakling among their tribes.

For he remembered his holy word
to his servant Abraham.
And he led forth his people with joy;
with shouts of joy, his chosen ones.


Holy Gospel of Jesus Christ according to Saint Luke 18:1-8.
Jesus told his disciples a parable about the necessity for them to pray always without becoming weary. He said,
"There was a judge in a certain town who neither feared God nor respected any human being.
And a widow in that town used to come to him and say, 'Render a just decision for me against my adversary.'
For a long time the judge was unwilling, but eventually he thought, 'While it is true that I neither fear God nor respect any human being,
because this widow keeps bothering me I shall deliver a just decision for her lest she finally come and strike me.'"
The Lord said, "Pay attention to what the dishonest judge says.
Will not God then secure the rights of his chosen ones who call out to him day and night? Will he be slow to answer them?
I tell you, he will see to it that justice is done for them speedily. But when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on earth?"

____________


 

 

SOURCE:   http://www.evangeliumtagfuertag.org

 

 

PRAY FOR THE DEAD

IN NOVEMBER REMEMBER TO PRAY FOR THOSE WHO HAVE DIED.  HAVE MASSES SAID FOR THEM AT THIS SITE.

MASSES SAID FOR THE DEAD (25 MASSES A DAY FOR THOSE WHO HAVE PASSED)

http://www.holysouls.com

Saint Teresa of Avila says in her Autobiography she was given visions of souls that went to Heaven, Purgatory and Hell. She says in the  passage below that she only saw a few people that died go straight into Heaven.

From the book, THE LIFE OF SAINT TERESA OF JESUS, The Autobiography of Teresa of Avila, Chapter 38,

 http://jesus-passion.com/Life_of_Saint_Teresa_Contents.htm

"Another friar of our Order -- a very good friar -- was extremely ill[346]; and while I was at Mass I became recollected and saw that he was dead and was ascending into Heaven without passing through purgatory. He had died, as I afterwards heard, at the very hour at which I saw him. I was amazed that he had not gone to purgatory. I learned that, as he had been a friar who had faithfully observed his Rule, the Bulls of the Order had been of avail to save him from going there. I do not know why I was allowed to learn this: I think it must have been to teach me that being a friar does not consist in a habit -- I mean, in the wearing of the habit -- and that this does not in itself imply the state of greatest perfection, which is that of a friar.

    I will say no more of these matters, for, as I have said, it is unnecessary for me to do so, though the Lord has granted me the favour of seeing a great many such things. But from none of the visions that I have seen have I ever gathered that any soul has escaped purgatory save the souls of this Father, of the saintly Fray Peter of Alcantara and of the Dominican Father whom I have mentioned.[347] The Lord has been pleased that I should see the degrees of glory to which some persons have been raised and has shown them to me in the places which have been assigned to them. There is a great difference between some of these places and others."

 
SAINT FOR TODAY

 THE DEDICATION OF THE
BASILICAS OF ST PETER AND OF ST PAUL

FEAST DAY:  NOVEMBER 18TH

 
Basilica of St. Peters, Rome  

Basilica of St. Paul, Rome

AS the commemorative feast of the dedication of the archbasilica of the Lateran is kept by the whole Western church, so also is that of the other greater patriarchal basilicas at Rome, St Mary Major on August 5, and St Peter's and St Paul's together on this day, November 18th. Amongst all the places which the blood of martyrs has rendered illustrious, that part of the Vatican Hill which was consecrated with the blood and enriched with the relics of the Prince of the Apostles has always been the most venerable. "The sepulchres of those who have served Christ crucified", says St John Chrysostom, "surpass the palaces of kings ; not so much in the greatness and beauty of the buildings (though in this also they go beyond them) as in other things of more importance, such as the multitude of those who with devotion and joy repair to them. For the emperor himself, clothed in purple, goes to the tombs of the saints and kisses them ; humbly prostrate on the ground he beseeches the same saints to pray to God for him ; and he who wears a royal crown looks on it as a great privilege from God that a tentmaker and a fisherman,  and these dead, should be his protectors and defenders, and for this he begs with great earnestness." The martyrdom of St Peter took place according to tradition at the circus of Caligula in Nero 's gardens on the Vatican Hill, and he was buried nearby. It is held by some that in the year 258, to avoid desecration during the persecution of Valerian, the relics of St Peter, together with those of St Paul were translated for a time to the obscure catacomb now called St Sebastian's ; but they came back to their original resting-place, and in 323 the Emperor Constantine began the building of the basilica of St Peter over the tomb of the Apostle. For nearly twelve hundred years this magnificent church remained substantially the same, a great papal establishment gradually growing up between it and the Vatican Hill. This was made the permanent residence of the popes on their return from the exile at Avignon, and by the middle of the fifteenth century the old church was found to be inadequate. In 1506 Pope Julius II inaugurated a new building designed by Bramante, whose erection was carried on over a period of a hundred and twenty years, undergoing many alterations, additions and modifications at the hands of various popes and architects, especially Paul V and Michelangelo. The new basilica of St Peter, as we see it today, was consecrated by Pope Urban VIII on November 18, 1626, the day of its original dedication. The high altar was set up over the Apostle's resting-place, which until 1942 had been inaccessible for many centuries. Though St Peter's must always yield in dignity to the cathedral of St John Lateran, it has nevertheless for long been the most important church of the world, both in fact and in the hearts of Catholic Christians.

     The martyrdom of St Paul took place some seven miles from that of St Peter at Aquae Salviae (now called Tre Fontane) on the Ostian Way. He was buried about two miles therefrom, on the property of a lady named Lucina, in a small vault. Early in the third century, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., ii, 25, 7), a Roman priest, Caius, refers to the tombs of SS. Peter and Paul : " I can show you the trophies [tombs] of the apostles. If you go to the Vatican or on the road to Ostia you will see the trophies of those who founded this church." Constantine is said to have begun a basilica here too, but the great church of St Pauloutside-the-Walls was principally the work of the Emperor Theodosius I and Pope St Leo the Great. It remained in its primitive beauty and simplicity till the year 1823, when it was consumed by fire. The whole world contributed to its restoration, non-Christians as well as non-Catholics sending gifts and contributions. During the course of the work the fourth-century tomb was found, with the inscription PAULO APOST MART : To Paul, apostle and martyr ; it was not opened. The new basilica, on the lines of the old one, was consecrated by Pope Pius IX on December 10, 1854, but the annual commemoration was appointed for this day, as the Roman Martyrology records. " We do not ", says St Augustine, " build churches or appoint priesthoods, sacred rites and sacrifices to the martyrs, because, not the martyrs, but the God of the martyrs, is our God. Who among the faithful ever heard a priest, standing at the altar set up over the body of a martyr to the honour and worship of God, say in praying : We offer up sacrifices to thee, Peter, or Paul, or Cyprian ? We do not build churches to martyrs as to gods, but as memorials to men departed this life, whose souls live with God. Nor do we make altars to sacrifice on them to the martyrs, but to their God and our God."

The reader may be referred to Cardinal Schuster, The Sacramentary (Eng. trans.), vol. v, pp. 280- 287 ; to O. Marucchi, Basiliques et eglises de Rome (1902), and Ch. Balser', 382 5 1' 1VIAWES, OR MAUDEZ tivovemut, Le chiese di Roma (1927). The martyrdom and burial-places of SS. Peter and Paul have already been touched upon, with further references, herein under June 29 ; and cf. the first entry under November 9.

Source:  Butler's Lives of the Saints

 

SAINT PETER'S ROME BELOW:

 

 

SAINT PAUL'S ROME BELOW:

 

Saint Elizabeth of Hungary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  
St Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F.
Widow and religious
Born 7 July 1207
Pozsony, Kingdom of Hungary (modern-day Bratislava, Slovakia)
Died 17 November 1231 (aged 24)
Marburg, Landgraviate of Thuringia, Holy Roman Empire (modern-day Hesse, Germany)
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Church
Lutheran Church
Canonized 27 May 1235[1][2][3], Perugia, Italy by Pope Gregory IX
Major shrine St. Elizabeth Church, Marburg, Germany
Feast 17 November
19 November (General Roman Calendar 1670-1969)[4]
Attributes Roses, crown, food basket
Patronage hospitals, nurses, bakers, brides, countesses, dying children, exiles, homeless people, lace-makers, widows and the Third Order of Saint Francis

Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F. (German: Heilige Elisabeth von Thüringen, Hungarian: Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet; 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231),[5] also known as Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia or Saint Elisabeth of Thuringia, was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness.[6]

Elizabeth was married at the age of 14, and widowed at 20. After her husband's death she sent her children away and regained her dowry, using the money to build a hospital where she herself served the sick. She became a symbol of Christian charity after her death at the age of 24 and was quickly canonized.[citation needed]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTERCESSORY PRAYER:  SAINT ELIZABETH, PLEASE PRAY FOR US TODAY [STATE YOUR PRAYER REQUEST.]

 

Early life and marriage

Elizabeth was the daughter of King Andrew II of Hungary and Gertrude of Merania. Her mother's sister was Hedwig of Andechs, wife of Duke Heinrich I of Silesia.[5] Her ancestry included many notable figures of European royalty, going back as far as Vladimir the Great of the Kievan Rus. According to tradition, she was born in Hungary, possibly in the castle of Sárospatak (discussed below), on 7 July 1207.[7][8][9]

A sermon printed in 1497 by the Franciscan friar Osvaldus de Lasco, a church official in Hungary, is the first to name Sárospatak as the saint's birthplace, perhaps building on local tradition. The veracity of this account is not without reproach: Osvaldus also translates the miracle of the roses (see below) to Elizabeth's childhood in Sárospatak and has her leave Hungary at the age of five.[10]

According to a different tradition she was born in Pozsony, Hungary, (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia), where she lived in the Castle of Posonium until the age of four.[citation needed]

Elizabeth was brought to the court of the rulers of Thuringia in central Germany, to be betrothed to Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia (also known as Ludwig IV), a future union which would reinforce political alliances between the families.[a] She was raised by the Thuringian court and would have been familiar with the local language and culture.

 
St. Elizabeth washing a sick man
a scene from the main altar of St. Elisabeth Cathedral in Kassa, 15th century

In 1221, at the age of fourteen, Elizabeth married Louis; the same year he was enthroned as Landgrave, and the marriage appears to have been happy.[citation needed]

Religious inclinations, influences

In 1223, Franciscan friars arrived, and the teenage Elizabeth not only learned about the ideals of Francis of Assisi, but started to live them.[12] Louis was not upset by his wife's charitable efforts, believing that the distribution of his wealth to the poor would bring eternal reward; he is venerated in Thuringia as a saint, though he was never canonized by the Church.[citation needed]

It was also about this time that the priest and later inquisitor Konrad von Marburg gained considerable influence over Elizabeth when he was appointed as her confessor. In the spring of 1226, when floods, famine, and plague wrought havoc in Thuringia, Louis, a staunch supporter of the Hohenstaufen Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, represented Frederick II at the Imperial Diet held in Cremona.

Elizabeth assumed control of affairs at home and distributed alms in all parts of their territory, even giving away state robes and ornaments to the poor. Below Wartburg Castle, she built a hospital with twenty-eight beds and visited the inmates daily to attend to them.

Widowhood

 
St. Elizabeth spinning wool for the poor by Marianne Stokes (1895)

Elizabeth's life changed irrevocably on 11 September 1227 when Louis, en route to join the Sixth Crusade, died of a fever in Otranto, Italy, just a few weeks before the birth of her daughter Gertrude. Upon hearing the news of her husband's death, Elizabeth reportedly said, "He is dead. He is dead. It is to me as if the whole world died today."[13] His remains were returned to Elizabeth in 1228 and entombed at the Abbey of Reinhardsbrunn.

After Louis' death, his brother, Henry (German: Heinrich) Raspe, assumed the regency during the minority of Elizabeth's eldest child, Hermann (1222–1241). After bitter arguments over the disposal of her dowry — a conflict in which Konrad was appointed as the official Defender of her case by Pope Gregory IX — Elizabeth left the court at Wartburg and moved to Marburg in Hesse.[citation needed]

Up to 1888 it was believed, on account of the testimony of one of Elizabeth's servants during the canonization process, that Elizabeth was driven from the Wartburg in the winter of 1227 by her brother-in-law, Heinrich Raspe, who acted as regent for her son, then only five years old. About 1888 various investigators (Börner, Mielke, Wenck, E. Michael, etc.) asserted that Elizabeth left the Wartburg voluntarily. She was not able at the castle to follow Konrad's command to eat only food obtained in a way that was certainly right and proper.[5]

Following her husband's death, Elizabeth made solemn vows to Konrad similar to those of a nun. These vows included celibacy, as well as complete obedience to Konrad as her confessor and spiritual director. Konrad's treatment of Elizabeth was extremely harsh, and he held her to standards of behavior which were almost impossible to meet. Among the punishments he is alleged to have ordered were physical beatings; he also ordered her to send away her three children. Her pledge to celibacy proved a hindrance to her family's political ambitions. Elizabeth was more or less held hostage at Pottenstein, the castle of her uncle, Bishop Ekbert of Bamberg, in an effort to force her to remarry. Elizabeth, however, held fast to her vow, even threatening to cut off her own nose so that no man would find her attractive enough to marry.[14]

Elizabeth's second child Sophie of Thuringia (1224–1275) married Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and was the ancestress of the Landgraves of Hesse, since in the War of the Thuringian Succession she won Hesse for her son Heinrich I, called the Child. Elizabeth's third child, Gertrude of Altenberg (1227–1297), was born several weeks after the death of her father; she became abbess of the monastery of Altenberg Abbey, Hesse near Wetzlar.[citation needed]

Elizabeth built a hospital at Marburg for the poor and the sick with the money from her dowry, where she and her companions cared for them. Her official biography written as part of the canonization process describes how she ministered to the sick and continued to give money to the poor.[citation needed]

Lifetime miracles

Miracle of the Roses

 
A statue showing the miracle of the roses in the rose garden in front of the neo-Gothic church dedicated to her at Roses' Square (Rózsák tere), Budapest.[15]

Elizabeth is perhaps best known for her miracle of the roses which says that whilst she was taking bread to the poor in secret, she met her husband Ludwig on a hunting party, who, in order to quell suspicions of the gentry that she was stealing treasure from the castle, asked her to reveal what was hidden under her cloak. In that moment, her cloak fell open and a vision of white and red roses could be seen, which proved to Ludwig that God's protecting hand was at work.[16]

Her husband, according to the vitae, was never troubled by her charity and always supported it. In some versions of this story, it is her brother in law, Heinrich Raspe, who questions her. Hers is the first of many miracles that associate Christian saints with roses, and is the most frequently depicted in the saint's iconography.[citation needed]

Crucifix in the bed

Another story about St Elizabeth, also found in Dietrich of Apolda's Vita, relates how she laid the leper Helias of Eisenach in the bed she shared with her husband. Her mother-in-law, who was horrified, told this immediately to Ludwig on his return. When Ludwig removed the bedclothes in great indignation, at that instant "Almighty God opened the eyes of his soul, and instead of a leper he saw the figure of Christ crucified stretched upon the bed."[16] This story also appears in Franz Liszt's oratorio about Elizabeth.[17]

Death and legacy

 
Elisabethkirche in Marburg
 
Floorplan of Elisabethkirche
 
Elisabeth church in Grave, The Netherlands

In 1231, Elizabeth died in Marburg at the age of twenty-four.[citation needed]

Miracles after death and canonization

Very soon after the death of Elizabeth, miracles were reported that happened at her grave in the church of the hospital, especially those of healing. On the suggestion of Konrad, and by papal command, examinations were held of those who had been healed between August 1232 and January 1235. The results of those examinations was supplemented by a brief vita of the saint-to-be, and together with the testimony of Elizabeth's handmaidens and companions (bound in a booklet called the Libellus de dictis quatuor ancillarum s. Elizabeth confectus), proved sufficient reason for quick canonization. She was canonized by Pope Gregory IX.

The papal bull declaring her a saint is on display in the Schatzkammer of the Deutschordenskirche in Vienna, Austria. Her body was laid in a magnificent golden shrine—still to be seen today—in the Marburg church bearing her name. Her remains were removed and scattered by her own descendant, the Landgrave Philip I "the Magnanimous" of Hesse, at the time of the Reformation.

It is now a Protestant church, but has spaces set aside for Catholic worship. Marburg became a center of the Teutonic Order, which adopted St. Elizabeth as its secondary patroness. The Order remained in Marburg until its official dissolution by Napoleon in 1803. A bejeweled reliquary believed to have contained her head was taken as loot by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War and is today displayed in the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm.[18]

Association with the Franciscans

After her death, Elizabeth was commonly associated with the Third Order of Saint Francis, the primarily lay branch of the Franciscan Order, which has helped propagate her cult. Whether she ever actually joined the order, only recently founded in 1221, the year when she married Louis at the age of fourteen, is not proven to everyone's satisfaction.[19]

It must be kept in mind though that the Third Order was such a new development in the Franciscan movement, that no one official ritual had been established at that point. Elizabeth clearly had a ceremony of consecration in which she adopted a Franciscan religious habit in her new way of life, as noted above.

From her support of the friars sent to Thuringia, she was made known to the founder, St Francis of Assisi, who sent her a personal message of blessing shortly before his death in 1226. Upon her canonization she was declared the patron saint of the Third Order of St Francis, an honor she shares with St Louis IX of France.

Evolution of the religious order

Elizabeth's shrine became one of the main German centers of pilgrimage of the 14th century and early 15th century. During the course of the 15th century, the popularity of the cult of St Elizabeth slowly faded, though to some extent this was mitigated by an aristocratic devotion to St Elizabeth, since through her daughter Sophia she was an ancestor of many leading aristocratic German families.

But three hundred years after her death, one of Elizabeth's many descendants, the Landgrave Philip I "the Magnanimous" of Hesse, a leader of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important supporters of Martin Luther, raided the church in Marburg and demanded that the Teutonic Order hand over Elizabeth's bones, in order to disperse her relics and thus put an end to the already declining pilgrimages to Marburg. Philip took away the crowned agate chalice in which her head rested, but returned it after being imprisoned by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

The chalice was subsequently plundered by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War and is now on display at The Swedish History Museum in Stockholm. Her skull and some of her bones can be seen at the Viennese convent bearing her name; some relics also survive at the shrine in Marburg.

Depiction in art and music

Saint Elizabeth is often depicted holding a basket of bread, or some other sort of food or beverage, characteristic of her devotion to the poor and hungry.[20]

Two of her miracles were of particular interest for the artists, the "Miracle of the roses" and the "Crucifix in the bed" (see under "Lifetime miracles").[citation needed]

Elizabeth of Hungary was almost certainly the inspiration for the character Elizabeth in Richard Wagner's opera Tannhauser.[citation needed]

Peter Janssens composed a musical play ("Musikspiel") Elisabeth von Thüringen in 1984 on a libretto by Hermann Schulze-Berndt (de).[citation needed]

2007 octocentennial celebrations

The year 2007 was proclaimed Elizabeth Year in Marburg. All year, events commemorating Elizabeth's life and works were held, culminating in a town-wide festival to celebrate the 800th anniversary of her birth on 7 July 2007. Pilgrims came from all over the world for the occasion, which ended with a special service in the Elisabeth Church that evening.[citation needed]

A new musical based on Elizabeth's life, Elisabeth--die Legende einer Heiligen (Elizabeth--Legend of a Saint), starring Sabrina Weckerlin as Elizabeth, Armin Kahn as Ludwig, and Chris Murray as Konrad, premiered in Eisenach in 2007. It was performed in Eisenach and Marburg for two years, and closed in Eisenach in July 2009.[21][22]

The entire Third Order of St. Francis, both the friars and sisters of the Third Order Regular and the Secular Franciscan Order, joined in this celebration through a two-year-long program of study of her life. This was conducted throughout the Order, across the globe. There were also religious ceremonies held worldwide during that period. The yearlong observance of the centennial which began on her feast day in 2007 was closed at the General Chapter of the Order, held in Budapest in 2008. The New York region of the Order produced a movie of her life, produced by a sister of the Order, Lori Pieper.[23]

 

 

ST. MARGARET OF SCOTLAND.

FEAST DAY:  NOVEMBER 16TH

[LIVES OF THE SAINTS, COMPILED FROM "BUTLER'S LIVES" AND OTHER APPROVED SOURCES, 1899.]

SAINT  MARGARET'S name signifies "pearl;"  "a fitting name," says Theodoric, her confessor and her first biographer, "for one such as she."  Her soul was like a precious pearl. A life spent amidst the luxury of a royal court never dimmed its lustre, or stole it away from Him who had bought it with His blood. She was the granddaughter of an English king; and in 1070 she became the bride of Malcolm, and reigned Queen of Scotland till her death in 1093. How did she become a Saint in a position where sanctity is so difficult? First, she burned with zeal for the house of God. She built churches and monasteries; she busied herself in making vestments; she could not rest till she saw the laws of God and His Church observed throughout her realm. Next, amidst a thousand cares, she found time to converse with God—ordering her piety with such sweetness and discretion that she won her husband to sanctity like her own. He used to rise with her at night for prayer; he loved to kiss the holy books she used, and sometimes he would steal them away, and bring them back to his wife covered with jewels. Lastly, with virtues so great, she wept constantly over her sins, and begged her confessor to correct her faults. St. Margaret did not neglect her duties in the world because she was not of it. Never was a better mother. She spared no pains in the education of her eight children, and their sanctity was the fruit of her prudence and her zeal. Never was a better queen. She was the most trusted counsellor of her husband, and she labored for the material improvement of the country. But, in the midst of the world's pleasures, she sighed for the better country, and accepted death as a release. On her deathbed she received the news that her husband and her eldest son were slain in battle. She thanked God, who had sent this last affliction as a penance for her sins. After receiving Holy Viaticum, she was repeating the prayer from the Missal, "O Lord Jesus Christ, who by Thy death didst give life to the world, deliver me." At the words " deliver me," says her biographer, she took her departure to Christ, the Author of true liberty.
 

REFLECTION.—All perfection consists in keeping a guard upon the heart. Wherever we are, we can make a solitude in our hearts, detach ourselves from the world, and converse familiarly with God. Let us take St. Margaret for our example and encouragement.

INTERCESSORY PRAYER:  Today, ask Saint Margaret to intercede for your needs.  Saint Margaret, please pray for (state your prayer request to this saint).

 

 

 

SAINT ALBERT THE GREAT, BISHOP

DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH

1206-1280

FEAST DAY:  NOVEMBER 15TH

[LIVES OF THE SAINTS, COMPILED FROM "BUTLER'S LIVES" AND OTHER APPROVED SOURCES, 1899.]

He was born around 1206, the son of a count  of Bollstadt and raised in Swabia, Germany.  He was known for his bright intellectual mind.  He attended the University of Padua, where he entered the Dominican order.  He completed his studies and taught in Cologne and in schools in several other cities.  He taught in Paris, France; one of his students was Saint Thomas Aquinas.  Later on Albert was elected provincial of the Dominican order in Germany.  Soon after he went to Rome and served as a theologian for the Papacy.  Albert along with Thomas Aquinas helped to organize the Dominican Order academically by drawing up rules and class schedules for the Dominican academic students.  In 1260, Albert was made bishop of Ratisbon.  He served two years as bishop and then resigned to return to Cologne to teach theology. Albert  worked for Pope Gregory X at a council, to try to help restore the Greek Church back to the Roman Catholic Church.  Albert had profound knowledge of the natural sciences and had knowledge of astronomy, geography, biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, physiology and zoology.  He believed these sciences were given to men by God so that men could better understand God's creation of the earth and the universe and God Himself.  Albert had a treatise that proved that the earth was round and that there was more extensive land to be found in the Atlantic Ocean. Saint Albert died in Cologne, Germany on November 15, 1280.  Pope Pius XI made him a saint and declared him to be a Doctor of the Church in 1931.

 

INTERCESSORY PRAYER:  Ask Saint Albert to touch the minds of theologians in the Catholic Church to always guide them to teach accurately the tenets of the faith.

Saint Albert the Great, pray for us!

More on Saint Albert the Great:  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01264a.htm


 

Saint Albertus Magnus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Saint Albert the Great)
Saint
Albertus Magnus, O.P.
AlbertusMagnus.jpg
Saint Albertus Magnus, a fresco by Tommaso da Modena (1352), Church of San Nicolò, Treviso, Italy
Religious, Bishop, and Doctor of the Church
Born c. 1200
Lauingen, Duchy of Bavaria
Died November 15, 1280
Cologne, Holy Roman Empire
Venerated in Catholic Church
Beatified 1622, Rome, Papal States, by Pope Gregory XV
Canonized 1931, Vatican City, by Pope Pius XI
Major shrine St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany
Feast November 15
Patronage Cincinnati, Ohio; medical technicians; natural sciences; philosophers; scientists; students
Albertus Magnus
Born c. 1200
Lauingen
Died 1280
Cologne
Other names Albertus Teutonicus, Albertus Coloniensis, Albert the Great, Albert of Cologne
Alma mater University of Padua
 
Era Medieval philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Scholasticism
Medieval realism[1]

Albertus Magnus,[3] O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop. Later canonised as a Catholic saint, he was known during his lifetime as Doctor universalis and Doctor expertus and, late in his life, the sobriquet Magnus was appended to his name.[4] Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages.[5] The Catholic Church distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church.

 

 

Biography

It seems likely that Albert was born sometime before 1200, given well-attested evidence that he was aged over 80 on his death in 1280. More than one source says that Albert was 87 on his death, which has led 1193 to be commonly given as the date of Albert's birth.[6] Albert was probably born in Lauingen (now in Bavaria), since he called himself 'Albert of Lauingen', but this might simply be a family name. Most probably his family was of ministerial class; his familiar connection with (being son of the count) Bollstädt noble family was a 15th-century misinterpretation that is now completely disproved.[6][not in citation given]

Albert was probably educated principally at the University of Padua, where he received instruction in Aristotle's writings. A late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers to Albertus' encounter with the Blessed Virgin Mary, who convinced him to enter Holy Orders. In 1223 (or 1229)[7] he became a member of the Dominican Order, and studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. Selected to fill the position of lecturer at Cologne, Germany, where the Dominicans had a house, he taught for several years there, as well as in Regensburg, Freiburg, Strasbourg, and Hildesheim. During his first tenure as lecturer at Cologne, Albert wrote his Summa de bono after discussion with Philip the Chancellor concerning the transcendental properties of being.[8] In 1245, Albert became master of theology under Gueric of Saint-Quentin, the first German Dominican to achieve this distinction. Following this turn of events, Albert was able to teach theology at the University of Paris as a full-time professor, holding the seat of the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James.[8][9] During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus.[10]

 
Bust of Albertus Magnus by Vincenzo Onofri, c. 1493

Albert was the first to comment on virtually all of the writings of Aristotle, thus making them accessible to wider academic debate. The study of Aristotle brought him to study and comment on the teachings of Muslim academics, notably Avicenna and Averroes, and this would bring him into the heart of academic debate.

In 1254 Albert was made provincial of the Dominican Order,[10] and fulfilled the duties of the office with great care and efficiency. During his tenure he publicly defended the Dominicans against attacks by the secular and regular faculty of the University of Paris, commented on John the Evangelist, and answered what he perceived as errors of the Islamic philosopher Averroes.

In 1259 Albert took part in the General Chapter of the Dominicans at Valenciennes together with Thomas Aquinas, masters Bonushomo Britto,[11] Florentius,[12] and Peter (later Pope Innocent V) establishing a ratio studiorum or program of studies for the Dominicans[13] that featured the study of philosophy as an innovation for those not sufficiently trained to study theology. This innovation initiated the tradition of Dominican scholastic philosophy put into practice, for example, in 1265 at the Order's studium provinciale at the convent of Santa Sabina in Rome, out of which would develop the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, the "Angelicum"[14]

 
Roman sarcophagus containing the relics of Albertus Magnus in the crypt of St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany

In 1260 Pope Alexander IV made him bishop of Regensburg, an office from which he resigned after three years. During the exercise of his duties he enhanced his reputation for humility by refusing to ride a horse, in accord with the dictates of the Order, instead traversing his huge diocese on foot. This earned him the affectionate sobriquet "boots the bishop" from his parishioners. In 1263 Pope Urban IV relieved him of the duties of bishop and asked him to preach the eighth Crusade in German-speaking countries.[15] After this, he was especially known for acting as a mediator between conflicting parties. In Cologne he is not only known for being the founder of Germany's oldest university there, but also for "the big verdict" (der Große Schied) of 1258, which brought an end to the conflict between the citizens of Cologne and the archbishop. Among the last of his labors was the defense of the orthodoxy of his former pupil, Thomas Aquinas, whose death in 1274 grieved Albert (the story that he travelled to Paris in person to defend the teachings of Aquinas can not be confirmed).

After suffering a collapse of health in 1278, he died on November 15, 1280, in the Dominican convent in Cologne, Germany. Since November 15, 1954, his relics are in a Roman sarcophagus in the crypt of the Dominican St. Andreas Church in Cologne.[16] Although his body was discovered to be incorrupt at the first exhumation three years after his death, at the exhumation in 1483 only a skeleton remained.[17]

Albert was beatified in 1622. He was canonized and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on December 16, 1931, by Pope Pius XI[15] and the patron saint of natural scientists in 1941. St. Albert's feast day is November 15.

Writings

 
Albertus Magnus monument at the University of Cologne

Albert's writings collected in 1899 went to thirty-eight volumes. These displayed his prolific habits and encyclopedic knowledge of topics such as logic, theology, botany, geography, astronomy, astrology, mineralogy, alchemy, zoology, physiology, phrenology, justice, law, friendship, and love. He digested, interpreted, and systematized the whole of Aristotle's works, gleaned from the Latin translations and notes of the Arabian commentators, in accordance with Church doctrine. Most modern knowledge of Aristotle was preserved and presented by Albert.[10]

His principal theological works are a commentary in three volumes on the Books of the Sentences of Peter Lombard (Magister Sententiarum), and the Summa Theologiae in two volumes. The latter is in substance a more didactic repetition of the former.

Albert's activity, however, was more philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism). The philosophical works, occupying the first six and the last of the 21 volumes, are generally divided according to the Aristotelian scheme of the sciences, and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works, with supplementary discussions upon contemporary topics, and occasional divergences from the opinions of the master. Albert believed that Aristotle's approach to natural philosophy did not pose any obstacle to the development of a Christian philosophical view of the natural order.[15]

 
De animalibus (1450–1500 ca., cod. fiesolano 67, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana)

Albert's knowledge of physical science was considerable and for the age remarkably accurate. His industry in every department was great, and though we find in his system many gaps which are characteristic of scholastic philosophy, his protracted study of Aristotle gave him a great power of systematic thought and exposition. An exception to this general tendency is his Latin treatise "De falconibus" (later inserted in the larger work, De Animalibus, as book 23, chapter 40), in which he displays impressive actual knowledge of a) the differences between the birds of prey and the other kinds of birds; b) the different kinds of falcons; c) the way of preparing them for the hunt; and d) the cures for sick and wounded falcons.[18] His scholarly legacy justifies his contemporaries' bestowing upon him the honourable surname Doctor Universalis.

In De Mineralibus Albert claims, "The aim of natural philosophy (science) is not simply to accept the statements of others, but to investigate the causes that are at work in nature." While Aristotelianism greatly influenced Albert's view on nature and philosophy, he investigated Aristotle's ideas critically, judged many of them to be in error, and emphasized that experiment is the only safe guide in such investigations.[10]

Alchemy

 
Albertus Magnus, Chimistes Celebres, Liebig's Extract of Meat Company Trading Card, 1929

In the centuries since his death, many stories arose about Albert as an alchemist and magician. "Much of the modern confusion results from the fact that later works, particularly the alchemical work known as the Secreta Alberti or the Experimenta Alberti, were falsely attributed to Albertus by their authors to increase the prestige of the text through association."[19] On the subject of alchemy and chemistry, many treatises relating to alchemy have been attributed to him, though in his authentic writings he had little to say on the subject, and then mostly through commentary on Aristotle. For example, in his commentary, De mineralibus, he refers to the power of stones, but does not elaborate on what these powers might be.[20] A wide range of Pseudo-Albertine works dealing with alchemy exist, though, showing the belief developed in the generations following Albert's death that he had mastered alchemy, one of the fundamental sciences of the Middle Ages. These include Metals and Materials; the Secrets of Chemistry; the Origin of Metals; the Origins of Compounds, and a Concordance which is a collection of Observations on the philosopher's stone; and other alchemy-chemistry topics, collected under the name of Theatrum Chemicum.[21] He is credited with the discovery of the element arsenic[22] and experimented with photosensitive chemicals, including silver nitrate.[23][24] He did believe that stones had occult properties, as he related in his work De mineralibus. However, there is scant evidence that he personally performed alchemical experiments.

According to legend, Albert is said to have discovered the philosopher's stone and passed it on to his pupil Thomas Aquinas, shortly before his death. Albert does not confirm he discovered the stone in his writings, but he did record that he witnessed the creation of gold by "transmutation."[25] Given that Thomas Aquinas died six years before Albert's death, this legend as stated is unlikely.

Astrology

Albert was deeply interested in astrology, as has been articulated by scholars such as Paola Zambelli.[26] Throughout the Middle Ages –and well into the early modern period –astrology was widely accepted by scientists and intellectuals who held the view that life on earth is effectively a microcosm within the macrocosm (the latter being the cosmos itself). It was believed that correspondence therefore exists between the two and thus the celestial bodies follow patterns and cycles analogous to those on earth. With this worldview, it seemed reasonable to assert that astrology could be used to predict the probable future of a human being. Albert made this a central component of his philosophical system, arguing that an understanding of the celestial influences affecting us could help us to live our lives more in accord with Christian precepts.[27] The most comprehensive statement of his astrological beliefs is to be found in a work he authored around 1260, now known as the Speculum astronomiae. However, details of these beliefs can be found in almost everything he wrote, from his early De natura boni to his last work, the Summa theologiae.[28]

Matter and form

Albert believed that all natural things were compositions of matter and form, he referred to it as quod est and quo est. Albert also believed that God alone is the absolute ruling entity. Albert's version of hylomorphism is very similar to the Aristotelian doctrine.

Music

Albert is known for his commentary on the musical practice of his times. Most of his written musical observations are found in his commentary on Aristotle's Poetics. He rejected the idea of "music of the spheres" as ridiculous: movement of astronomical bodies, he supposed, is incapable of generating sound. He wrote extensively on proportions in music, and on the three different subjective levels on which plainchant could work on the human soul: purging of the impure; illumination leading to contemplation; and nourishing perfection through contemplation. Of particular interest to 20th-century music theorists is the attention he paid to silence as an integral part of music.

Metaphysics of morals

Both of his early treatises, De natura boni and De bono, start with a metaphysical investigation into the concepts of the good in general and the physical good. Albert refers to the physical good as bonum naturae. Albert does this before directly dealing with the moral concepts of metaphysics. In Albert's later works, he says in order to understand human or moral goodness, the individual must first recognize what it means to be good and do good deeds. This procedure reflects Albert's preoccupations with neo-Platonic theories of good as well as the doctrines of Pseudo-Dionysius.[29] Albert's view was highly valued by the Catholic Church and his peers.

Natural law

Albert devoted the last tractatus of De Bono to a theory of justice and natural law. Albert places God as the pinnacle of justice and natural law. God legislates and divine authority is supreme. Up until his time, it was the only work specifically devoted to natural law written by a theologian or philosopher.[30]

Friendship

Albert mentions friendship in his work, De bono, as well as presenting his ideals and morals of friendship in the very beginning of Tractatus II. Later in his life he published Super Ethica.[31] With his development of friendship throughout his work it is evident that friendship ideals and morals took relevance as his life went on. Albert comments on Aristotle's view of friendship with a quote from Cicero, who writes, "friendship is nothing other than the harmony between things divine and human, with goodwill and love". Albert agrees with this commentary but he also adds in harmony or agreement.[32] Albert calls this harmony, consensio, itself a certain kind of movement within the human spirit. Albert fully agrees with Aristotle in the sense that friendship is a virtue. Albert relates the inherent metaphysical contentedness between friendship and moral goodness. Albert describes several levels of goodness; the useful (utile), the pleasurable (delectabile) and the authentic or unqualified good (honestum). Then in turn there are three levels of friendship based on each of those levels, namely friendship based on usefulness (amicitia utilis), friendship based on pleasure (amicitia delectabilis), and friendship rooted in unqualified goodness (amicitia honesti; amicitia quae fundatur super honestum).[33]

Cultural references

 
The tympanum and archivolts of Strasbourg Cathedral, with iconography inspired by Albertus Magnus

The iconography of the tympanum and archivolts of the late 13th-century portal of Strasbourg Cathedral was inspired by Albert's writings.[34] Albert is frequently mentioned by Dante, who made his doctrine of free will the basis of his ethical system. In his Divine Comedy, Dante places Albertus with his pupil Thomas Aquinas among the great lovers of wisdom (Spiriti Sapienti) in the Heaven of the Sun. Albert is also mentioned, along with Agrippa and Paracelsus, in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, in which his writings influence a young Victor Frankenstein.

In The Concept of Anxiety, Søren Kierkegaard wrote that Albert, "arrogantly boasted of his speculation before the deity and suddenly became stupid." Kierkegaard cites Gotthard Oswald Marbach whom he quotes as saying "Albertus repente ex asino factus philosophus et ex philosopho asinus" [Albert was suddenly transformed from an ass into a philosopher and from a philosopher into an ass].[35]

In Walter M. Miller, Jr.'s post-apocalyptic novel A Canticle for Leibowitz there is an order of monks devoted to saving knowledge named the Albertian Order of Leibowitz in reference to Albert.

Johann Eduard Erdmann considers Albert greater and more original than his pupil Aquinas.[36]

Influence and tribute

 
Painting by Joos (Justus) van Gent, Urbino, c. 1475

A number of schools have been named after Albert, including Albertus Magnus High School in Bardonia, New York;[37] Albertus Magnus Lyceum in River Forest, Illinois; and Albertus Magnus College in New Haven, Connecticut.[38]

Albertus Magnus Science Hall at Thomas Aquinas College, in Santa Paula, California, is named in honor of Albert. The main science buildings at Providence College and Aquinas College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, are also named after him.

The central square at the campus of the University of Cologne features a statue of Albert and is named after him.

The Academy for Science and Design in New Hampshire honored Albert by naming one of its four houses Magnus House.

As a tribute to the scholar's contributions to the law, the University of Houston Law Center displays a statue of Albert. It is located on the campus of the University of Houston.

The Albertus-Magnus-Gymnasium is found in Regensburg, Germany.

In Managua, Nicaragua, the Albertus Magnus International Institute, a business and economic development research center, was founded in 2004.

 
University of Santo Tomas in the Philippines

In The Philippines, the Albertus Magnus Building at the University of Santo Tomas that houses the Conservatory of Music, College of Tourism and Hospitality Management, College of Education, and UST Education High School is named in his honor. The Saint Albert the Great Science Academy in San Carlos City, Pangasinan, which offers preschool, elementary and high school education, takes pride in having St. Albert as their patron saint. Its main building was named Albertus Magnus Hall in 2008. San Alberto Magno Academy in Tubao, La Union is also dedicated in his honor. This century-old Catholic high school continues to live on its vision-mission up to this day, offering Senior High school courses. Due to his contributions to natural philosophy, the plant species Alberta magna and the asteroid 20006 Albertus Magnus were named after him.

Numerous Catholic elementary and secondary schools are named for him, including schools in Toronto; Calgary; Cologne; and Dayton, Ohio.

The Albertus typeface is named after him.

At the University of Notre Dame du Lac in South Bend, Indiana, USA, the Zahm House Chapel is dedicated to St. Albert the Great. Fr. John Zahm, C.S.C., after whom the men's residence hall is named, looked to St. Albert's example of using religion to illumine scientific discovery. Fr. Zahm's work with the Bible and evolution is sometimes seen as a continuation of St. Albert's legacy.

Located in Groningen, The second largest student's fraternity of the Netherlands is named Albertus Magnus, in honour of the Saint.

Bibliography

Translations

  • On the Causes of the Properties of the Elements, translated by Irven M. Resnick, (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2010) [translation of Liber de causis proprietatum elementorum]
  • Questions concerning Aristotle's on Animals, translated by Irven M Resnick and Kenneth F Kitchell, Jr, (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2008) [translation of Quaestiones super De animalibus]
  • The Cardinal Virtues: Aquinas, Albert, and Philip the Chancellor, translated by RE Houser, (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2004) [contains translations of Parisian Summa, part six: On the good and Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, book 3, dist. 33 & 36]
  • The Commentary of Albertus Magnus on Book 1 of Euclid's Elements of Geometry, edited by Anthony Lo Bello, (Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003) [translation of Priumus Euclidis cum commento Alberti]
  • On Animals: A Medieval Summa Zoologica, translated by Kenneth F Kitchell, Jr. and Irven Michael Resnick, (Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999) [translation of De animalibus]
  • Paola Zambelli, The Speculum Astronomiae and Its Enigma: Astrology, Theology, and Science in Albertus Magnus and His Contemporaries, (Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992) [includes Latin text and English translation of Speculum astronomiae]
  • Albert & Thomas: Selected Writings, translated by Simon Tugwell, Classics of Western Spirituality, (New York: Paulist Press, 1988) [contains translation of Super Dionysii Mysticam theologiam]
  • On Union with God, translated by a Benedictine of Princethorpe Priory, (London: Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1911) [reprinted as (Felinfach: Llanerch Enterprises, 1991) and (London: Continuum, 2000)] [translation of De adherendo Deo]

See also

References

  • Hilde de Ridder-Symoens (ed.). A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 439.
  • Irven Resnick (ed.), A Companion to Albert the Great: Theology, Philosophy, and the Sciences, BRILL, 2012, p. 4; Thomas F. Glick, Steven Livesey, Faith Wallis (eds.), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2014, p. 15; Pope Benedict XVI, Great Christian Thinkers: From the Early Church Through the Middle Ages, Fortress Press, 2011, p. 281.
  • Latin: Albertus Teutonicus, Albertus Coloniensis.
  • Weisheipl, James A. (1980), "The Life and Works of St. Albert the Great", in Weisheipl, James A., Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays, Studies and texts, 49, Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, p. 46, ISBN 0-88844-049-9
  • Joachim R. Söder, "Albert der Grosse – ein staunen- erregendes Wunder," Wort und Antwort 41 (2000): 145; J.A. Weisheipl, "Albertus Magnus," Joseph Strayer ed., Dictionary of the Middle Ages 1 (New York: Scribner, 1982) 129.
  • Tugwell, Simon. Albert and Thomas, New York Paulist Press, 1988, p. 3, 96–7
  • Tugwell 1988, pp. 4–5.
  • Kovach, Francs, and Rober Shahan. Albert the Great: Commemorative Essays . Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980, p.X
  • Hampden, The Life, p. 33.
  • Kennedy, Daniel. "St. Albertus Magnus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 10 Sept. 2014
  • Histoire littéraire de la France: XIIIe siècle. 19. p. 103. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  • Probably Florentius de Hidinio, a.k.a. Florentius Gallicus, Histoire littéraire de la France: XIIIe siècle, Volume 19, p. 104, Accessed October 27, 2012
  • Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 10, p. 701. Accessed 9 June 2011
  • Weisheipl O.P., J. A., "The Place of Study In the Ideal of St. Dominic" Archived 2010-12-29 at the Wayback Machine., 1960. Accessed 19 March 2013
  • Führer, Markus, "Albert the Great", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
  • "Zeittafel". Gemeinden.erzbistum-koeln.de. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  • Carroll Cruz, Joan (1977). The Incorruptibles: A Study of the Incorruption of the Bodies of Various Catholic Saints and Beati. Charlotte, NC: TAN Books. ISBN 0-89555-066-0.
  • An Smets, "Le réception en langue vulgaire du "De falconibus" d'Albert le Grand," in: Medieval Forms of Argument: Disputation and Debate, ed. Georgiana Donavin, Carol Poster, and Richard Utz (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2002), pp. 189–99.
  • Katz, David A., "An Illustrated History of Alchemy and Early Chemistry", 1978
  • Georg Wieland, "Albert der Grosse. Der Entwurf einer eigenständigen Philosophie," Philosophen des Mittelalters (Darmstadt: Primus, 2000) 124-39.
  • Walsh, John, The Thirteenth, Greatest of Centuries. 1907:46 (available online).
  • Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 43,513,529. ISBN 0-19-850341-5.
  • Davidson, Michael W.; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The Florida State University (2003-08-01). "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You — Timeline — Albertus Magnus". The Florida State University. Archived from the original on 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  • Szabadváry, Ferenc (1992). History of analytical chemistry. Taylor & Francis. p. 17. ISBN 2-88124-569-2.
  • Julian Franklyn and Frederick E. Budd. A Survey of the Occult. Electric Book Company. 2001. p. 28-30. ISBN 1-84327-087-0.
  • Paola Zambelli, "The Speculum Astronomiae and its Enigma" Dordrecht.
  • Scott E. Hendrix, How Albert the Great's Speculum Astronomiae Was Interpreted and Used by Four Centuries of Readers (Lewiston: 2010), 44-46.
  • Hendrix, 195.
  • Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p. 93
  • Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.207
  • Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.242
  • Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.243
  • Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.244
  • France: A Phaidon Cultural Guide, Phaidon Press, 1985, ISBN 0-7148-2353-8, p. 705
  • The Concept of Anxiety, Princeton University Press, 1980, ISBN 0-691-02011-6, pp. 150–151
  • Erdmann - History of Philosophy vol 1 trans Hough - London 1910. p. 422
  • "Albertus Magnus High School". Albertusmagnus.net. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
    1. "Albertus Magnus College". Albertus.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-09.

    Sources

  • Tugwell, Simon (1988). Albert and Thomas. New York: Paulist Press.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChambers, Ephraim, ed. (1728). "article name needed". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (first ed.). James and John Knapton, et al.
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     ST. PETER OF ALCANTARA.

    FEAST DAY:  OCTOBER 19TH

    PETER, while still a youth, left his home at Alcantara in Spain, and entered a convent of Discalced Franciscans. He rose quickly to high posts in the Order, but his thirst for penance was still unappeased, and in 1539, being then forty years old, he founded the first convent of the "Strict Observance." The cells of the friars resembled graves rather than dwelling-places. That of St. Peter himself was four feet and a half in length, so that he could never lie down ; he ate but once in three days; his sackcloth habit and a cloak were his only garments, and he never covered his head or feet. In the bitter winter he would open the door and window of his cell that, by closing them again, he might experience some sensation of warmth. Amongst those whom he trained to perfection was St. Teresa. He read her soul, approved of her spirit of prayer, and strengthened her to carry out her reforms. St. Peter died, with great joy, kneeling in prayer, October 18th, 1562, at the age of sixty-three.

    REFLECTION.-If men do not go about barefoot now, nor under-go sharp penances, as St. Peter did, there are many ways of trampling on the world; and our Lord teaches them when He finds the necessary courage.

    MORE ON SAINT PETER FROM BUTLER'S LIVES OF THE SAINTS

     

    INTERCESSORY PRAYER:  Saint Teresa of Avila said concerning Saint Peter of Alcantara that, "The Lord once told me that no one should ask Him for anything in his name and not be heard."

    Saint Peter of Alcantara, please pray for us today [state your prayer request.]

     

     

    OUR LADY OF THE ROSARY

    FEAST DAY:  OCTOBER 7TH

    HAIL MARY, FULL OF GRACE,
    THE LORD IS WITH THEE,
    BLESSED ART THOU AMONGST WOMEN,
    AND BLESSED IS THE FRUIT OF THY WOMB JESUS,
    HOLY MARY, MOTHER OF GOD,
    PRAY FOR US SINNERS
    NOW AND AT THE HOUR OF OUR DEATH. 
    AMEN!

     

     

    SEE SAINT LOUIS DE MONTFORT'S BOOK ON THE ROSARY: 
                                                 THE SECRET OF THE ROSARY

     

     

     

     

     

     

    THE VIRGIN MARY POURS OUT SPECIAL GRACES  FOR THOSE PEOPLE WHO SAY THE ROSARY! 

    SAINT PADRE PIO PRAYED HIS ROSARY THROUGHOUT THE DAY AND WOULD SAY AT LEAST 15 DECADES OF THE ROSARY EACH DAY.  THE MESSAGE HE WANTED TO  LEAVE THE WORLD WITH BEFORE HE DIED WAS FOR PEOPLE TO PRAY THE ROSARY.

     

     

    Our Lady of the Rosary
    Nuestra Señora del Santisimo Rosario by Damián Domingo
    Our Lady of Victory, Lady of the Rosary, Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary
    Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
    Major shrine Our Lady of Victory Basilica,
    Basilica of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Paris
    Feast October 7
    Attributes Blessed Virgin Mary, Infant Jesus, crown, rosary
    Patronage Rosary, Roman Catholic Diocese of Malaga, Toledo, Rosario, Santa Fe, Melilla, Trujillo, Cáceres, Colombia, Manizales, Puyo, Pastaza, North Carolina, Bohol, Guatemala, Surigao del Norte, Manila, Quezon City, West Virginia, Seseña, Ontígola, Olías del Rey, Montearagón, Toledo, Lagartera, Huerta de Valdecarábanos, Brenes

     

    Our Lady of the Rosary

    Our Lady of the Rosary, also known as Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary, is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in relation to the Rosary. The Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary is on October 7, the anniversary of the decisive victory of the combined Christian fleet in 1571 at the Battle of Lepanto, defeating an Ottoman fleet off western Greece. It was formerly sometimes known as the Feast of Our Lady of Victory.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     

    According to Dominican tradition, in 1214, St. Dominic was in Prouille, France attempting to convert the Albigensians back to the Catholic faith. The young priest had little success until one day he received a vision of the Blessed Virgin, who gave him the Rosary as a tool against heretics.[1] While Mary's giving the rosary to St. Dominic is generally acknowledged as a legend, the development of this prayer form owes much to the followers of St. Dominic, including the 15th century priest and teacher, Alanus de Rupe.[2]

    On December 3, 1836, Fr. Charles Eléonor des Genettes had an interior locution directing him to dedicate the parish of Our Lady of Victory to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.[3]

    On October 13, 1917, Our Lady of Fatima told the shepherd children, "I am the Lady of the Rosary".[4]

    In 1987, during the civil war with the anti-clerical Sandinista government in Nicaragua, sacristan Bernardo Martinez reported seeing an apparition of Our Lady who urged him to pray the rosary and work for peace. One of the appearances was in the parish church of Our Lady of Victories near Cuapa.

     

     
     
     

     

    THE HOLY GUARDIAN ANGELS.

    FEAST DAY:  OCTOBER 2ND

    GOD does not abandon to mere chance any of His handiworks; by His providence He is everywhere present; not a hair falls from the head of a sparrow to the ground without His knowledge. Not content, however, with yielding such familiar help in all things, not content with affording that existence which He communicates and perpetuates through every living being, He has charged His angels with the ministry of watching and safeguarding every one of His creatures that behold not His face. Kingdoms have their angels assigned to them, and men have their angels; these latter it is whom religion designates as the Holy Guardian Angels, Our Lord says in the Gospel, "Beware lest ye scandalize any of these little ones, for their angels in heaven see the face of my Father." The existence of Guardian Angels is, hence, a dogma of the Christian faith : this being so, what ought not our respect be for that sure and holy intelligence that is ever present at our side; and how great should our solicitude be, lest, by any act of ours, we offend those eyes which are ever bent upon us in all our ways !

    REFLECTION.-Ah! let us not give occasion, in the language of Holy Scripture, to the angels of peace to weep bitterly.

    INTERCESSORY PRAYER:  Today, thank your guardian angel for his work in which he always strives to keep us close to Jesus.  Ask you guardian angel to guide your steps in the upcoming days, weeks, months and years.

     

     
     
     
     
     
     

    ST. JOSEPH, THE WORKER

    Spouse of the Blessed Virgin and Patron of the Universal Church.

    ST. JOSEPH was by birth of the royal family of David, but was living in humble obscurity as a carpenter when God raised him to the highest sanctity, and fitted him to be the spouse of His Virgin Mother, and foster-father and guardian of the Incarnate Word. Joseph, says the Holy Scripture, was a just man; he was innocent and pure, as became the husband of Mary; he was gentle and tender, as one worthy to be named the father of Jesus; he was prudent and a lover of silence, as became the master of the holy house; above all, he was faithful and obedient to divine calls. His conversation was with angels rather than with men. When he learned that Mary bore within her womb the Lord of heaven, he feared to take her as his wife; but an angel bade him fear not, and all doubts vanished. When Herod sought the life of the divine Infant, an angel told Joseph in a dream to fly with the Child and His Mother into Egypt. Joseph at once arose and obeyed. This sudden and unexpected flight must have exposed Joseph to many inconveniences and sufferings in so long a journey with a little babe and a tender virgin, the greater part of the way being through deserts and among strangers; yet he alleges no excuses; nor inquires at what time they were to return. St. Chrysostom observes that God treats thus all His servants, sending them frequent trials to clear their hearts from the rust of self-love, but intermixing seasons of consolation. "Joseph," says he, "is anxious on seeing the Virgin with child; an angel removes that fear. He rejoices at the Child's birth, but a great fear succeeds: the furious king seeks to destroy the Child, and the whole city is in an uproar to take away His life. This is followed by another joy, the adoration of the Magi; a new sorrow then arises: he is ordered to fly into a foreign unknown country, without help or acquaintance." It is the opinion of the Fathers that upon their entering Egypt, at the presence of the child Jesus, all the oracles of that superstitious country were struck dumb, and the statues of their gods trembled and in many places fell to the ground. The Fathers also attribute to this holy visit the spiritual benediction poured on that country, which made it for many ages most fruitful in Saints. After the death of King Herod, of which St. Joseph was informed in another vision, God ordered him to return with the Child and His Mother into the land of Israel, which our Saint readily obeyed. But when he arrived in Judea, hearing that Archelaus had succeeded Herod in that part of the country, and apprehensive that he might be infected with his father's vices, he feared on that account to settle there, as he would otherwise probably have done for the education of the Child; and therefore, being directed by God in another vision, he retired into the dominions of Herod Antipas, in Galilee, to his former habitation in Nazareth. St. Joseph, being a strict observer of the Mosaic law, in conformity to its direction annually repaired to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover. Our Saviour, now int the twelfth year of His age, accompanied His parents thither. Having performed the usual ceremonies of the feast,they were returning with many of their neighbors and acquaintance towards Galilee; and never doubting but that Jesus was with some of the company, they travelled on for a whole day's journey before they discovered that He was not with them. But when night came on and they could hear no tidings of Him among their kindred and acquaintance, they, in the deepest affliction, returned with the utmost speed to Jerusalem. After an anxious search of three days they found Him in the Temple, discoursing with the learned doctors of the law, and asking them such questions as raised the admiration of all that heard Him, and made them astonished at the ripeness of His understanding; nor were His parents less surprised on this occasion. When His Mother told Him with what grief and earnestness they had sought Him, and asked, "Son, why hast Thou thus dealt with us? Behold Thy Father and I sought Thee in great affliction of mind," she received for answer, "How is it that you sought Me? Did you not know that I must be about My Father's business?" But though thus staying in the Temple unknown to His parents, in all other things He was obedient to them, returning with them to Nazareth, and there living in all dutiful subjection to them. As no further mention is made of St. Joseph, he must have died before the marriage of Cana and the beginning of our divine Saviour's ministry. We cannot doubt that he had the happiness of Jesus and Mary attending at his death, praying by him, assisting and comforting him in his last moments; whence he is particularly invoked for the great grace of a happy death and the spiritual presence of Jesus in that hour.

     Reflection.  -St. Joseph, the shadow of the Eternal Father upon earth, the protector of Jesus in His home at Nazareth, and a lover of all children for the sake of the Holy Child, should be the chosen guardian and pattern of every true Christian family.


    [MENTION YOUR PRAYER REQUEST]

    Lord, have mercy on us.
    Christ, have mercy on us.

    Lord, have mercy on us. Christ, hear us.
    Christ, graciously hear us.

    God the Father of Heaven,
    Have mercy on us.

    God the Son, Redeemer of the world,
    Have mercy on us.

    God the Holy Spirit,
    Have mercy on us.

    Holy Trinity, One God,
    Have mercy on us.

    Holy Mary, spouse of St. Joseph,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, confirmed in grace,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, guardian of the Word Incarnate,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, favorite of the King of Heaven,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, ruler of the family of Jesus,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, spouse of the ever-blessed Virgin,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, foster father to the Son of God,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, example of humility and obedience,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, mirror of silence and resignation,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, patron of innocence and youth,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, exited with Christ into Egypt,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, intercessor for the afflicted,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, advocate of the humble,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, model of every virtue,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, honored among men,
    Pray for us.

    Saint Joseph, in whom is the union of all Christian perfections,
    Pray for us.

    Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world,
    Spare us, O Lord.

    Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world,
    Graciously hear us, O Lord.

    Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world,
    Have mercy on us.

    V. Pray for us, O holy Saint Joseph,
    R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

    Let Us Pray.

    Assist us, O Lord,
    we beseech Thee,
    by the merits of the spouse
    of Thy most holy Mother,
    that what our unworthiness cannot obtain,
    may be given us by his intercession with Thee,
    Who livest and reignest with God the Father
    in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
    one God, world without end.

    Amen.

    PRAYER TO SAINT JOSEPH

    O Saint Joseph, whose protection is so great, so strong, so prompt before the throne of God, I place in thee all my interests and desires. O thou Saint Joseph, do assist me by thy powerful intercession, and obtain for me from thy divine Son all spiritual blessings, through Jesus Christ, Our Lord; so that, having engaged here below thy heavenly power, I may offer my thanksgiving and homage to the most loving of fathers. O Saint Joseph, I never weary contemplating thee, and Jesus asleep in thy arms; I dare not approach while He reposes near thy heart. Press Him in my name and kiss His fine head for me, and ask Him to return the kiss when I draw my dying breath. Saint Joseph, Patron of departing souls, pray for me.  Amen!

    ___________

     

    BLESSED ANNE CATHERINE EMMERICH'S VISION:

     THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT

     

     

     
    POPE FRANCIS PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR 2017

     


    NOVEMBER
    Christians in Asia.

    That Christians in Asia, bearing witness to the Gospel in word and deed, may promote dialogue, peace, and mutual understanding, especially with those of other religions.
     



     

     

    http://www.apostleshipofprayer.org/2017-intentions/

     

     
     

    OUR LADY OF GOOD REMEDY

    PRAYER

    Queen of Heaven and earth,
    most Holy Virgin,
    we venerate thee.
    Thou art the beloved daughter
    of the Most High God,
    the chosen mother of the
    Incarnate Word,
    the immaculate spouse of
    the Holy Spirit,
    the sacred vessel of the
     Most Holy Trinity.
    O Mother of the Divine Redeemer,
    who under the title of
    Our Lady of Good Remedy
    comes to the aid of all
    who call upon thee,
    extend thy maternal protection to us.
    We depend on thee,
    dear Mother,
    as helpless and needy children
    depend on a tender and caring mother.

    Pray the Hail Mary...


    O Lady of Good Remedy,
    source of unfailing help,
    grant that we may draw
    from thy treasury of graces
    in our time of need.
    Touch the hearts of sinners,
    that they may seek
    reconciliation and forgiveness.
    Bring comfort to
    the afflicted and the lonely;
    help the poor and the hopeless;
    aid the sick and the suffering.
    May they be healed in body
    and strengthened in spirit
    to endure their sufferings
    with patient resignation
    and Christian fortitude.

    Pray the Hail Mary...


    Dear Lady of Good Remedy,
    source of unfailing help,
    thy compassionate heart knows a remedy
    for every affliction and misery
    we encounter in life.
    Help me with thy prayers and intercession
    to find a remedy for my problems and needs,
    especially for...


    (Mention your personal intention)


    On my part,
    O loving Mother,
    I pledge myself to a more intensely Christian lifestyle,
    to a more careful observance of the laws of God,
    to be more conscientious
    in fulfilling the obligations of my state in life,
    and to strive to be a source of healing
    in this broken world of ours.

    Dear Lady of Good Remedy,
    be ever present to me,
    and through thy intercession,
    may I enjoy health of body and peace of mind,
    and grow stronger in the faith
    and in the love of thy Son, Jesus.

    Pray the Hail Mary...


    V. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of Good Remedy,
    R. That we may deepen our dedication to thy Son,
         
    and make the world alive with His Spirit.

     
     

    PRAYERS FOR THE DAY

    MORNING PRAYER
    AFTERNOON PRAYER
    EVENING PRAYER

     

     

     

     

     

     

    PART III.

    CONTAINING COUNSELS CONCERNING THE PRACTICE OF VIRTUE.

     

    PART III

    CHAPTER XXIX.
    On Slander.


    FROM rash judgments proceed mistrust, contempt for others, pride, and self-sufficiency, and numberless other pernicious results, among which stands forth prominently the sin of slander, which is a veritable pest of society. Oh, wherefore can I not take a live coal from God's Altar, and touch the lips of
    men, so that their iniquity may be taken away and their sin purged, even as the Seraphim purged the lips of Isaiah. 1 He who could purge the world of slander would cleanse it from a great part of its sinfulness!
    He who unjustly takes away his neighbour's good name is guilty of sin, and is bound to make reparation, according to the nature of his evil speaking; since no man can enter into Heaven cumbered with stolen goods, and of all worldly possessions the most precious is a good name. Slander is a kind of murder; for
    we all have three lives--a spiritual life, which depends upon the Grace of God; a bodily life, depending on the soul; and a civil life, consisting in a good reputation. Sin deprives us of the first, death of the second, and slander of the third. But the slanderer commits three several murders with his idle tongue:
    he destroys his own soul and that of him who hearkens, as well as causing civil death to the object of his slander; for, as S. Bernard says, the Devil has possession both of the slanderer and of those who listen to him, of the tongue of the one, the ear of the other. And David says of slanderers, "They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent; adders' poison is under their lips." 2 Aristotle says that, like the forked, two-edged tongue of the serpent, so is that of the slanderer, who at one dart pricks and poisons the ear of those who hear him, and the reputation of him who is slandered.

    1 Isa. vi. 6, 7. 2 Ps. cxl. 3.


    My daughter, I entreat you never speak evil of any, either directly or indirectly; beware of ever unjustly imputing sins or faults to your neighbour, of needlessly disclosing his real faults, of exaggerating such as are overt, of attributing wrong motives to good actions, of denying the good that you know to exist in another, of maliciously concealing it, or depreciating it in conversation. In all and each of these ways you grievously offend God, although the worst is false accusation, or denying the truth to your neighbour's damage, since therein you combine his harm with falsehood. Those who slander others with an affectation of good will, or with dishonest pretences of friendliness, are the most spiteful and evil of all. They will profess that they love their victim, and that in many ways he is an excellent man, but all the same, truth must be told, and he was very wrong in such a matter; or that such and such a woman is very virtuous generally, but and so on. Do you not see through the artifice? He who draws a bow draws the arrow as close as he can to himself, but it is only to let it fly more forcibly; and so such slanderers appear to be withholding their evil-speaking, but it is only to let it fly with surer aim and go deeper into the listeners' minds. Witty slander is the most mischievous of all; for just as some poisons are but feeble when taken alone, which become powerful when mixed with wine, so many a slander, which would go in at one ear and out at the other of itself, finds a resting-place in the listener's brain when it is accompanied with amusing, witty comments. "The poison of asps is under their lips." The asp's bite is scarcely perceptible, and its poison at first only causes an irritation which is scarcely disagreeable, so that the heart and nervous system dilate and receive that poison, against which later on there is no remedy.
    Do not pronounce a man to be a drunkard although you may have seen him drunk, or an adulterer, because you know he has sinned; a single act does not stamp him for ever. The sun once stood still while Joshua and the children of Israel avenged themselves upon their enemies; 1 and another time it was darkened at mid-day when the Lord was crucified; 2 but no one would therefore say that it was stationary or dark. Noah was drunk once, and Lot, moreover, was guilty of incest, yet neither man could be spoken of as habitually given to such sins; neither would you call S. Paul a man of blood or a blasphemer, because he had blasphemed and shed blood

    1 Josh. x. 13. 2 S. Luke xxiii. 44.


    before he became a Christian. Before a man deserves to be thus stigmatised, he must have formed a habit of the sin he is accused of, and it is unfair to call a man passionate or a thief, because you have once known him steal or fly into a passion. Even when a man may have persisted long in sin, you may say what is untrue in calling him vicious. Simon the leper called Magdalene a sinner, because she had once lived a life of sin; but he lied, for she was a sinner no longer, but rather a very saintly penitent, and so our Lord Himself undertook her defence. 1


    The Pharisee looked upon the publican as a great sinner,--probably as unjust, extortionate, adulterous; 2 but how mistaken he was, inasmuch as the condemned publican was even then justified! If God's Mercy is so great, that one single moment is sufficient for it to justify and save a man, what assurance have we
    that he who yesterday was a sinner is the same to-day? Yesterday may not be the judge of today, nor to-day of yesterday: all will be really judged at the Last Great Day. In short, we can never affirm a man to be evil without running the risk of lying. If it be absolutely necessary to speak, we may say that he was
    guilty of such an act, that he led an evil life at such and such a time, or that he is doing certain wrong at the present day; but we have no right to draw deductions for to-day from yesterday, nor of
    yesterday from today; still less to speak with respect to the future.
     

    1 S. Luke vii. 37-39. 2 S. Luke xviii. 11.

    But while extremely sensitive as to the slightest approach to slander, you must also guard against an extreme into which some people fall, who, in their desire to speak evil of no one, actually uphold and speak well of vice. If you have to do with one who is unquestionably a slanderer, do not excuse him under the expressions of frank and free-spoken; do not call one who is notoriously vain, liberal and elegant; do not call dangerous levities mere simplicity; do not screen disobedience under the name of zeal, or arrogance of frankness, or evil intimacy of friendship. No, my child, we must never, in our wish to shun slander, foster or flatter vice in others; but we must call evil evil, and sin sin, and so doing we shall serve God's Glory, always bearing in mind the following rules. If you would be justified in condemning a neighbour's sin, you must be sure that it is needful either for his good or that of others to do so. For instance, if light, unseemly conduct is spoken of before young people in a way calculated to
    injure their purity, and you pass it over, or excuse it, they may be led to think lightly of evil, and to imitate it; and therefore you are bound to condemn all such things freely and at once, unless it is obvious that by reserving your charitable work of reprehension to a future time, you can do it more profitably.
    Furthermore, on such occasions it is well to be sure that you are the most proper person among those present to express your opinion, and that your silence would seem in any way to condone the sin. If you are one of the least important persons present, it is probably not your place to censure; but supposing it to be your duty, be most carefully just in what you say,--let there not be a word too much or too little. For instance, you censure the intimacy of certain people, as dangerous and indiscreet. Well, but you must hold the scales with the most exact justice, and not exaggerate in the smallest item. If there be only a slight appearance of evil, say no more than that; if it be a question of some trifling imprudence, do not make it out to be more; if there be really neither imprudence nor positive appearance of evil, but only such as affords a pretext for malicious slander, either say simply so much, or, better still, say nothing
    at all. When you speak of your neighbour, look upon your tongue as a sharp razor in the surgeon's hand, about to cut nerves and tendons; it should be used so carefully, as to insure that no particle more or less than the truth be said. And finally, when you are called upon to blame sin, always strive as far as possible to spare the sinner. Public, notorious sinners may be spoken of freely, provided always even then that a spirit of charity and compassion prevail, and that you do not speak of them with arrogance or presumption, or as though you took pleasure in the fall of others. To do this is the sure sign of a mean ungenerous mind. And, of course, you must speak freely in condemnation of the professed enemies of God and His Church, heretics and schismatics,--it is true charity to point out the wolf wheresoever he creeps in among the flock. Most people permit themselves absolute latitude in criticising and censuring rulers, and in calumniating nationalities, according to their own opinions and likings. But do you avoid
    this fault; it is displeasing to God, and is liable to lead you into disputes and quarrels. When you hear evil of any one, cast any doubt you fairly can upon the accusation; or if that is impossible, make any available excuse for the culprit; and where even that may not be, be yet pitiful and compassionate, and
    remind those with whom you are speaking that such as stand upright do so solely through God's Grace. Do your best kindly to check the scandal-bearer, and if you know anything favourable to the person criticised, take pains to mention it.

     

    CHAPTER XXX.
    Further Counsels as to Conversation.


    LET your words be kindly, frank, sincere, straightforward, simple and true; avoid all artifice, duplicity and pretence, remembering that, although it is not always well to publish abroad everything that may be true, yet it is never allowable to oppose the truth. Make it your rule never knowingly to say what is
    not strictly true, either accusing or excusing, always remembering that God is the God of Truth. If you have unintentionally said what is not true, and it is possible to correct yourself at once by means of explanation or reparation, do so. A straightforward excuse has far greater weight than any falsehood.
    It may be lawful occasionally to conceal or disguise the truth, but this should never be done save in such special cases as make this reserve obviously a necessity for the service and glory of God. Otherwise all such artifice is dangerous; and we are told in Holy Scripture that God's Holy Spirit will not abide with the false or double-minded. Depend upon it there is no craft half so profitable and successful as simplicity. Worldly prudence and artifice belong to the children of this world; but the children of God go straight on with a single heart and in all confidence;--falsehood, deceit and duplicity are sure signs of a mean, weak mind.
     

    In the Fourth Book of his Confessions, S. Augustine spoke in very strong terms of his passionate devotion to a friend, saying that they had but as one soul, and that after his friend's death his life was a horror to him, although he feared to die. But later on these expressions seemed unreal and affected to him, and he withdrew them in his Retractations. 1 You see how sensitive that great mind was to unreality or affectation. Assuredly straightforward honesty and sincerity in speech is a great beauty in the Christian life. "I said I will take heed to my ways, that I offend not in my tongue." 2 "Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth, and keep the door of my lips." 3 It was a saying of S. Louis, that one should


    1 "My dearest Nebridius . . . I wondered that others subject to death should live, since he whom I loved, as if he should never die, was dead; and I wondered yet more that myself, who was to him as a second self, could live, he being dead. . . . I felt that my soul and his soul were one soul in two bodies, and therefore my life was a horror to me, because I would not live halved, and therefore perchance I feared to die, lest he whom I had much loved should die wholly."--Confessions, Oxf. Trans. Bk. iv. p. 52. ". . . which seems to me rather an empty declamation than a grave confession."--Retract., Bk. ii. c. 6.
    2 Ps. xxxix. 1. 3 Ps. cxli. 3.


    contradict nobody, unless there was sin or harm in consenting; and that in order to avoid contention and dispute. At any rate, when it is necessary to contradict anybody, or to assert one's own opinion, it should be done gently and considerately, without irritation or vehemence. Indeed, we gain nothing by sharpness or petulance. The silence, so much commended by wise men of old, does not refer so much to a literal use of few words, as to not using many useless words. On this score, we must look less to the quantity than the quality, and, as it seems to me, our aim should be to avoid both extremes. An excessive reserve and stiffness, which stands aloof from familiar friendly conversation, is untrusting, and implies a certain sort of contemptuous pride; while an incessant chatter and babble, leaving no opportunity for others to put in their word, is frivolous and troublesome. S. Louis objected to private confidences and whisperings in society, especially at table, lest suspicion should be aroused that scandal was being repeated. "Those who have anything amusing or pleasant to say," he argued, "should let everybody share the entertainment, but if they want to speak of important matters, they should wait a more suitable time."
    ______________

     

    TO GO TO NEXT CHAPTER SEE:

    XXXI. Of Amusements and Recreations: what are allowable . . .

     

    http://jesus-passion.com/Saint_Francis_de_Sales_Contents.htm

     

     

     

    Unfailing Novena To The Virgin Mary Untier of Knots

    Prayer to Mary, Undoer of Knots

    Virgin Mary, Mother of fair love, Mother who never refuses to come to the aid of a child in need, Mother whose hands never cease to serve your beloved children because they are moved by the divine love and immense mercy that exists in your heart, cast your compassionate eyes upon me and see the snarl of knots that exist in my life. You know very well how desperate I am, my pain, and how I am bound by these knots. Mary, Mother to whom God entrusted the undoing of the knots in the lives of his children, I entrust into your hands the ribbon of my life. No one, not even the Evil One himself, can take it away from your precious care. In your hands there is no knot that cannot be undone. Powerful Mother, by your grace and intercessory power with Your Son and My Liberator, Jesus, take into your hands today this knot.

    [Mention your request here]

    I beg you to undo it for the glory of God, once for all. You are my hope. O my Lady, you are the only consolation God gives me, the fortification of my feeble strength, the enrichment of my destitution, and, with Christ, the freedom from my chains. Hear my plea. Keep me, guide me, protect me, o safe refuge!

    Mary, Undoer of Knots, pray for me.

     

     

     

     
     

    PRAY FOR DONALD TRUMP

    SO THAT HE DOES GOD'S WILL IN THE WHITE HOUSE

    Pray hard for him.  If you have time now please say one Hail Mary and One Glory Be for him now. Pray that he would do God's will while working as President for our country.  That he would protect the unborn, help the poor and keep peace throughout this world.

     

     

    AMERICA'S GREATEST SIN IS ABORTION

    AMERICAN WAR CASUALTIES

    Each standard size cross-mark  represents 50,000 people killed.  The smaller cross-marks represent less than 50,000 deaths.   The war casualties represent all American combat-related deaths.  Statistics from 1982 World Almanac.
    REVOLUTIONARY WAR                    25,324    
    CIVIL WAR                                          496,332    †††††††††
    WORLD WAR I                                   116,708    ††
    WORLD WAR II                                  407,316    ††††††††
    KOREAN WAR                                     54,246  
    VIETNAM WAR                                     58,655        

     WAR ON UNBORN CHILDREN      OVER  59,440,015  
    ...since abortion was legalized in 1973

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    PRAY THAT ABORTION WOULD BE OUTLAWED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

     

    THE POWER AND THE BLESSINGS THAT COME FROM PRAYING THE ROSARY

     THE FIFTEEN PROMISES OF MARY TO CHRISTIANS WHO RECITE THE ROSARY

    These promises were given by the Blessed Mother to Saint Dominic and Blessed Alan.

     1. Whoever shall faithfully serve me by the recitation of the rosary, shall receive signal graces.

    2. I promise my special protection and the greatest graces to all those who shall recite the rosary.

    3. The rosary shall be a powerful armour against hell, it will destroy vice, decrease sin, and defeat heresies.

    4. It will cause virtue and good works to flourish; it will obtain for souls the abundant mercy of God; it will withdraw the hearts of men from the love of the world and its vanities, and will lift them to the desire of eternal things. Oh, that souls would sanctify themselves by this means.

    5. The soul which recommends itself to me by the recitation of the rosary, shall not perish.

    6. Whoever shall recite the rosary devoutly, applying himself to the consideration of its sacred mysteries shall never be conquered by misfortune. God will not chastise him in His justice, he shall not perish by an unprovided death; if he be just he shall remain in the grace of God, and become worthy of eternal life.

    7. Whoever shall have a true devotion for the rosary shall not die without the sacraments of the Church.

    8. Those who are faithful to recite the rosary shall have during their life and at their death the light of God and the plentitude of His graces; at the moment of death they shall participate in the merits of the saints in paradise.

    9. I shall deliver from purgatory those who have been devoted to the rosary.

    10. The faithful children of the rosary shall merit a high degree of glory in heaven.

    11. You shall obtain all you ask of me by the recitation of the rosary.

    12. All those who propagate the holy rosary shall be aided by me in their necessities.

    13. I have obtained from my Divine Son that all the advocates of the rosary shall have for intercessors the entire celestial court during their life and at the hour of death.

    14. All who recite the rosary are my sons, and brothers of my only Son Jesus Christ.

    15. Devotion of my rosary is a great sign of predestination.

    ________________

    THE SECRET OF THE ROSARY(by Saint Louis De Montfort)

      
     

    Graces Derived from Going to Mass
    (Note:  Assisting at Mass simply means attending Mass.  By attending a Mass Catholics are actually assisting in Mass.) 

    THE FOLLOWING IS FROM THE PIETA PRAYER BOOKLET, Published in U.S.A. by  MLOR Corporation, 1186 Burlington Drive, Hickory Corners, MI  49060-9330:

    1. The Mass is Calvary continued.

    2. Every Mass is worth as much as the sacrifice of our Lord's life, sufferings and death.

    3. Holy Mass is the most powerful atonement for your sins.

    4. At the hour of death the Masses you have heard will be your greatest consolation.

    5. Every Mass will go with you to judgment and plead for pardon.

    6. At Mass you can diminish more or less temporal punishment due to your sins, according to your fervor.

    7. Assisting devoutly at Holy Mass you render to the sacred humanity of Our Lord the greatest homage.

    8. He supplies for many of your negligences and omissions.

    9. He forgives the venial sins which you have not confessed.  The power of Satan over you is diminished.

    10. You afford the souls in Purgatory the greatest possible relief.

    11. One Mass heard during life will be of more benefit to you than many heard for you after your death.

    12. You are preserved from dangers and misfortunes which otherwise might have befallen you.  You shorten your Purgatory.

    13. Every Mass wins for you a higher degree of glory in Heaven.

    14. You receive the priest's blessing which Our Lord ratifies in Heaven.

    15. You kneel amidst a multitude of holy angels, who are present at the adorable Sacrifice with reverential awe.

    16. You are blessed in your temporal goods and affairs.

    In eternity, we shall fully realize that it was certainly worthwhile to have assisted at Holy Mass daily.  PRAY FOR PRIESTS THAT THEY MAY OFFER THE MASS WITH HOLY LOVE AND REVERENCE.

    **********

     

    "WHY Should I Go To Mass Every Day?"

    "The Mass is the most perfect form of prayer!"

    For each Mass we hear with devotion, Our Lord sends a saint to comfort us at death.  (revelation of Christ to St. Gertrude the great).

    Padre Pio, the stigmatic priest, said, the world could exist more easily without the sun than without the Mass.

    The Cure'd' Ars, St. Jean Vianney said, if we knew the value of the Mass we would die of joy.

    A great doctor of the Church, St. Anselm, declares that a single Mass offered for oneself during life may be worth more than a thousand celebrated for the same intention after death.  St. Leonard of Port Maurice supports this statement by saying that one Mass before death may be more profitable than  many after it.

    "The Holy Mass would be of greater profit if people had it offered in their lifetime, rather than having it celebrated for the relief of their souls after death."  (Pope Benedict XV).

    Once, St. Teresa was overwhelmed with God's Goodness and asked Our Lord, "How can I thank you?"  Our Lord replied, "ATTEND ONE MASS".

    **************

      
     

    MARIAN PRAYERS

     Saint Louis De Montfort stresses that people should give there hearts and wills to Jesus through Mary and that by doing this a soul will be able to soar toward God.  See Saint Louis's book True Devotion To Mary. Saint Louis warns of the devil's great ability to deceive souls, including souls of saints:

    "Because the devils, who are skillful thieves, wish to surprise us unawares, and to strip us.  They watch day and night for the favorable moment.  For that end they go round about us incessantly to devour us and to snatch from us in one moment, all the graces and merits we have gained for many years.   Their malice, their experience, their stratagems and their number ought to make us fear this misfortune immensely, especially when we see how many persons fuller of grace than we are, richer in virtues, better founded in experience and far higher exalted in sanctity, have been surprised, robbed and unhappily pillaged.  Ah!  How many cedars of Lebanon, how many stars of the firmament, have we not seen fall miserably, and in the twinkling of an eye lose all their height and their brightness!  Whence comes that sad and curious change?  It was not for want of grace, which is wanting to no man; but it was for want of humility.  They thought themselves capable of guarding their own treasures.  They trusted in themselves, relied upon themselves.  They thought their house secure enough, and their coffers strong enough, to keep the precious treasure of grace.  It is because of that scarcely perceptible reliance upon themselves, though all the while it seemed to them that they were relying only on the grace of God, that the most just Lord permitted them to be robbed by leaving them to themselves.  Alas!  If they had but known the admirable devotion which I will unfold presently, they would have confided their treasure to a Virgin powerful and faithful, who would have kept it for them as if it had been her own possession; nay, who would have even taken it as an obligation of justice on herself to preserve it for them".

    TRUE DEVOTION TO THE VIRGIN MARY, SAINT LOUIS de MONTFORT

    PRAYER TO
    THE VIRGIN MARY

    Holy Mary, my Queen and sovereign Lady, I give you myself, trusting in your fidelity and your protection. I surrender myself entirely to your motherly tenderness, my body, my soul, all that I am, all that I possess,  for the whole of this day, my life,  and especially at the hour of my death. I entrust to you once more all my hopes, all my consolations, all my anxieties, all my troubles, my life, my dying breath, so that by your prayers and merits, I may have, in all I do, one only goal, your good pleasure and the holy will of your Son.  Amen!

     

     

    The Chaplet of St. Michael

    One day, Saint Michael the Archangel appeared to Antonia d'Astonac, a most devout Servant of God and told her that he wished to be honoured by nine salutations corresponding to the nine Choirs of Angels, which should consist of one Our Father and three Hail Marys in honour of each of the Angelic Choirs.

    Promises of St. Michael

    "Whoever would practice this devotion in his honour would have, when approaching the Holy Table, an escort of nine angels chosen from each of the nine Choirs. In addition, for the daily recital of these nine salutations, he promised his continual assistance and that all the holy angels during life, and after death deliverance from Purgatory for themselves and all their relations."

     

     

     

    The Chaplet of St. Michael

    O God, come to my assistance. O Lord, make haste to help me. Glory be to the Father, etc.

    [Say one Our Father and three Hail Marys after each of the following nine salutations in honor of the nine Choirs of Angels]

      [STATE YOUR PRAYER REQUEST]

     

    1. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Seraphim may the Lord make us worthy to burn with the fire of perfect charity.
    Amen.

    2. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Cherubim may the Lord grant us the grace to leave the ways of sin and run in the paths of Christian perfection.
    Amen.

    3. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Thrones may the Lord infuse into our hearts a true and sincere spirit of humility.
    Amen.

    4. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Dominations may the Lord give us grace to govern our senses and overcome any unruly passions.
    Amen.

    5. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Virtues may the Lord preserve us from evil and falling into temptation. Amen.

    6. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Powers may the Lord protect our souls against the snares and temptations of the devil.
    Amen.

    7. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Principalities may God fill our souls with a true spirit of obedience. Amen.

    8. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Archangels may the Lord give us perseverance in faith and in all good works in order that we may attain the glory of Heaven.
    Amen.

    9. By the intercession of St. Michael and the celestial Choir of Angels may the Lord grant us to be protected by them in this mortal life and conducted in the life to come to Heaven.
    Amen.

    Say one Our Father in honor of each of the following leading Angels: St. Michael, St. Gabriel, St. Raphael and our Guardian Angel.

     

    Concluding prayers:

    O glorious prince St. Michael, chief and commander of the heavenly hosts, guardian of souls, vanquisher of rebel spirits, servant in the house of the Divine King and our admirable conductor, you who shine with excellence and superhuman virtue deliver us from all evil, who turn to you with confidence and enable us by your gracious protection to serve God more and more faithfully every day.

    Pray for us, O glorious St. Michael, Prince of the Church of Jesus Christ, that we may be made worthy of His promises.

    Almighty and Everlasting God, Who, by a prodigy of goodness and a merciful desire for the salvation of all men, has appointed the most glorious Archangel St. Michael Prince of Your Church, make us worthy, we ask You, to be delivered from all our enemies, that none of them may harass us at the hour of death, but that we may be conducted by him into Your Presence.This we ask through the merits of Jesus Christ Our Lord.    Amen.

     

     

    PURPOSE OF THIS WEB SITE

    Welcome to this Catholic Spiritual Direction Web Site.   It is the intention of this site to lead people to a closer relationship with God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit through the promotion of prayer and Christian teaching which will enable Christians to adhere to the straight and narrow path Jesus speaks of in the Gospels. Included in these web pages are the Douay-Rheims Bible and the works of Saint John of the Cross, Thomas ÃÆ’  Kempis and Saint Louis de Montfort, and the works of other saints of the Catholic faith, all of whose teachings on spiritual direction have been followed by priests, ministers, clergymen, Popes and Saints. These teachings adhere to the teachings of the Catholic Church. This site is dedicated to Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (Biography) (1774-1824) Mystic, Stigmatist, Prophet, and Great Visionary, a saintly Augustinian nun from Flamske, Germany. Her highly descriptive visions of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, The Sorrowful Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ, are presented here. In time more works from the Saints of the Catholic Church will be added to these pages.

     

     
    OVERCOMING DIFFICULTIES AT WORK OR AT HOME:

        
    When difficulties come to us at work or at home it important to pray your way through these difficulties.  At work, it could be trouble with a supervisor or a co-worker, with the result that misery is brought into our lives.  Or at home a wife or a husband, or a child or a relative may be causing you trouble.  It is important to pray your way through these difficulties.  The different forms of prayers listed above, the Rosary, the Chaplet of Saint Michael, the Divine Mercy Chaplet and the Holy Mass, can move God to assist us with the things the bother us the most during our lives.  Try these prayers, they work. 


     And sometimes, it takes the prayers of others to help change the current situations that are going on in our lives.   On the following web page, there are several prayer groups that will pray for yours needs; this a great tool against our daily problems and against the assaults of demons.  Sometimes it takes the prayers of many people to change things.

    http://www.jesus-passion.com/catholic_groups_that_will_pray_for_you.htm


     

    SAINT TERESA RECOMMENDS HOLY WATER

    From the Autobiography of St. Teresa of Avila , Chapter 31. 1562 A.D.

    "From long experience I have learned that there is nothing like holy water to put devils to flight and prevent them from coming back again. They also flee from the Cross, but return; so holy water must have great virtue. For my own part, whenever I take it, my soul feels a particular and most notable consolation. In fact, it is quite usual for me to be conscious of a refreshment which I cannot possibly describe, resembling an inward joy which comforts my whole soul. This is not fancy, or something which has happened to me only once it has happened again and again and I have observed it most attentively. It is let us say, as if someone very hot and thirsty were to drink from a jug of cold water: he would feel the refreshment throughout his body. I often reflect on the great importance of everything ordained by the Church and it makes me very happy to find that those words of the Church are so powerful that they impart their power to the water and make it so very different from water which has not been blessed."

    The Catholic Church around the world uses Holy Water in every church to make the church a fortress against the demons which assault men and women.  The Holy Water is usually situated near every entrance to the church for people to use to anoint themselves with the Sign of the Cross.  When an individual puts on Holy Water any demons present will flee.  Catholics should put Holy Water in containers and place them in their homes and their offices; by doing so they make their homes and offices fortresses against the demons which are always lurking about.  Catholics should also consider carrying the Holy Water in small containers in their pockets to ward off demonic attacks during each day.

    ____________

    GRACE POURED OUT FROM HOLY WATER

    "because they include a movement of reverence for God and Divine things; and in this way a bishop's blessing, the sprinkling of holy water, any sacramental anointing, a prayer said in a dedicated church, and anything else of the kind, conduce to the remission of venial sins."  Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica

    ORDER HOLY WATER BOTTLES:  http://totallycatholic.com/subcat.php?cid=61&id=190

    ALSO SEE: http://www.discountcatholicproducts.com/cath

     

     

    SAINT JOHN XXIII

     POPE JOHN XXIII SUMMARY ON WIKIPEDIA

     

        PRAYER OF INTERCESSION TO 
    SAINT JOHN XXIII.

    Saint John XXIII, you spent your life deeply immersed in the truths of the Catholic Faith.  You led us by your great example of sacrifice and love as you successively led millions to love Our Lord Jesus Christ and His Holy Church. 

    We now ask for your intercession for those who are troubled and in need:

      Saint John XXIII, please pray for the Holy Catholic Church and for the following prayer request:
    [state your prayer request.]

     

    SAINT JOHN PAUL II

    SEE:  EWTN  Biography on Pope John Paul II

    PRAYER FOR THE INTERCESSION
    OF SAINT JOHN PAUL II

    O Blessed Trinity, we thank you
    for having graced the Church with
    Saint John Paul II and for allowing
    the tenderness of your fatherly care,
    the glory of the Cross of Christ
    and the splendor of the Spirit of love
    to shine through him.

    Trusting fully in your infinite mercy
    and in the maternal intercession of Mary,
    he has given us a living image of
    Jesus the Good Shepherd.
    He has shown us that holiness
    is the necessary measure of ordinary
    Christian life and is the way of
    achieving eternal communion with you.
    Grant us, by his intercession,

    [MENTION PRAYER REQUEST]

    and according to your will,
    the graces we implore,
    through Christ our Lord. Amen.

     

    Prayer of Saint Catherine of Siena
    for Physical and Spiritual Healing
    .

    PRECIOUS BLOOD, ocean of divine mercy:
    Flow upon us!
    Precious Blood, most pure offering:
    Procure us every grace!
    Precious Blood, hope and refuge of sinners:
    Atone for us!
    Precious Blood, delight of holy souls:
    Draw us! Amen.
     

     

    Are you sick or do you know someone who is ill.  Say the  prayer above for them everyday.  Also, there is greater power of prayer when many people are praying for the sick.  Ask many fellow Catholics to join in prayer with you for the sick.  You can send prayer requests to Catholic Groups that will join you in prayer at:    http://www.jesus-passion.com/catholic_groups_that_will_pray_for_you.htm

     




     

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